By mathematics of language is meant the mathematical properties that may, under certain assumptions about modeling, be attributed to human languages and related symbolic systems, as well as the increasingly active and autonomous scholarly discipline that studies such things. More specifically, the use of techniques developed in a variety of pure and applied mathematics, including logic and the theory of computation, in the discovery and articulation of insights into the structure of language. Some of the contributions to this volume deal primarily with foundational issues, others with specific models and theoretical issues. A few are concerned with semantics, but most focus on syntax. The papers in this volume reveal applications of the several fields of the theory of computation (formal languages, automata, complexity), formal logic, topology, set theory, graph theory, and statistics. The book also shows a keen interest in developing mathematical models that are especially suited to natural languages.